Orthopedics (Bone & Joint care)

Orthopedics and Arthroscopy

Every human joint is an engineering marvel allowing movement between the bones while not allowing the bones to slip out of place. All this is a result of the complex interplay of forces that are exerted by the Ligaments, Capsule and Muscles surrounding the joint. Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that surgically corrects deformities, disorders of the bone or injuries to the skeletal muscles and associated structures like tendon and ligaments. Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery that is carried out by creating small incision to reach a joint as this helps in faster recovery.

Common disorders treated with arthroscopy


  • Menisceal tear
  • Ligament Injuries: ACL(Anterior Cruciate Ligament) Injury, PCL (Posterior Cruciate Ligament) injuries, Lateral and Medial Ligament injuries
  • Synovitis
  • Loose Bodies in the Knee


  • Recurrent Shoulder Dislocation or Instability
  • Shoulder Impingement
  • Rotator Cuff Tear
  • Frozen Shoulder
  • Labral Tear
  • Calcific Tendinitis


  • Ankle synovitis

Common symptoms in orthopaedics and arthroscopy


Meniscus tear

The meniscus is a cartilage cushion inside the knee. If it tears, the torn piece gets caught in the joint during movement and gives rise to pain. There may be a clicking sound during movement. In severe cases the joint may get locked because of the torn piece getting stuck in the joint.

ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) Tear

The knee has various ligaments that are responsible for maintaining correct alignment of the joint. If a ligament tears, the joint can slip out of position. This is experienced as a giving way sensation or a feeling of instability. This is felt especially when one needs to twist the body over one leg like turning to one side while standing on one leg.

Other Ligament Injuries (PCL, Lateral and Medial ligaments)

These can be injured due to a more severe trauma to the knee. They give rise to varying amounts of instability and pain.


This is an Inflammation or swelling of the knee. It can be due to a number of reasons. It is characterised by pain and restriction of movements.

Loose Bodies

These are loose cartilage and bone pieces floating in the joint. They can get caught up in the joint and cause pain and locking.


Shoulder Dislocation or Instability

The shoulder joint allows movement in all possible directions and still does not slip out of place. The ball shaped head of the humerus remains confined within the shallow socket called the glenoid. However, this delicately balanced relationship between the ball and socket may be disturbed sometimes. Most commonly the ball (head of humerus) dislocates in front. The shoulder feels unstable especially on trying to lift the hand above the head.


On lifting up the arm, the tissue between the shoulder and the acromion may get pinched giving rise to pain in the shoulder. This pain is especially felt on overhead activities.

Rotator Cuff Tear

The rotator cuff is made up of the tendons in front, above and behind the shoulder joint. These tendons can be torn completely or partially. The tearing can be because of gradual weakening of the tendons. It can also tear during a sudden jerk to the shoulder. Such a tear causes pain. It can be severe enough to disturb sleep. There would also be weakness because the torn tendon does not allow the muscle to exert its pull.

Frozen Shoulder

This is a common condition in which the capsule and ligaments of the shoulder become stiff and swollen. This stiff and swollen capsule causes pain on movement. Gradually the shoulder movements are restricted. There is a feeling of tightness of the joint. It gradually improves over months.

Labral Tear

The shallow socket of the shoulder is deepened by the labrum which is a fibrous ring along the edge of the socket. This may be torn sometimes and causes painSuch tears are common in the upper part of the Labrum.

Calcific Tendinitis

There may be Deposition of calcium in the tendons of the rotator cuff. This usually causes severe pain in the shoulder.

Common treatment in Orthopedics and Arthroscopy



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